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Std. 11 Science: Biology Practical Handbook

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Std. 11 Science: Biology Practical Handbook
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Biology Practical Handbook: Std. XIth Science

Biology Practical Handbook: A highly recommended book for Std. XI Science, Maharashtra State Board Aspirants.

Authors: Prof. Mamta R. Solanki, M.Sc., B.Ed., Nagpur, R. Jhunjhunwala College, Ghatkopar

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SYLLABUS

(A)    List of Experiments

 1.      Study of parts of compound microsope.
2.      Preparation of T.S. of dicot (sunflower) and monocot roots and stem to study different plant tissues.
3.      Study and describe three locally available flowering plants from the families-Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Liliaceae with respect to types of root – (tap and adventitious), stem (herbaceous and woody), leaf (arrangement, shape, venation, simple and compound) and floral characters.
4.      Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels.
5.      Study of osmosis by Potato osmometer.
6.      Study of structure and distribution of stomata in upper and lower surface of leaf.
7.      To test the presence of sugar, starch, proteins and fats from suitable plant and animal materials.
8.      To study the digestion of starch by salivary amylase under different conditions of temperature and pH.

(B)    Study / Observation of the following (Spotting)

 1.      Study of specimens and identification with reasons:  Bacteria, Amoeba, Oscillatoria, Spirogyra, Rhizopus, Yeast, Agaricus, Usnea, Riccia, Funaria, Nephrolepis, Cycas, sunflower and maize.
2.      comparative study of rates of transpiration in upper and lower surface of leaf.
3.      Study of different modifications of root (fusiform root, parasitic root, epiphytic root and pneumatophores).
4.      Study of different modifications of stem (stem tuber, runner, and tendril).
5.      Study of different modification of leaf (leaflet and stipular tendril), leaf Spines, phyllode).
6.      Study of imbibition of speeds/raisins.
7.      Study and identification of different types of inflorescence.
8.      Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant and animal cells – palisade cells, guard cells, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem, phloem, squamous epithelium, muscle fibres, mammalian blood smear, through temporary or permanent slides.
9.      Observation and comments on experimental set up on:
a.      Phototropism
b.      Suction due to transpiration
c.      Apical bud removal

10.    Study of specimens and their identification with reasons ­­­- Sycon, Hydra, liverfluke, Ascaris, Leech, Earthworm, Prawn, Silkworm, Honey bee, Snail, Star-fish, Balanoglossus, Shark, Rohu, Frog, Lizard, Pigeon and Rat.

11.    Study of human skeleton (except skull, hand bones and foot bones) and different types of joints (synovial, cartilaginous and fibrous joint with one suitable example).

12.    Study of external morphology of earthworm, cockroach and frog through models.

13.    Study of mitosis in onion roots tips and animal cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides.

INDEX

No.

Title

Page No.

 

(A)       List of Experiments

 
1. To study the parts of a compound microscope.

01

2. Preparation and study of transverse section of dicot (sunflower) and monocot (maize) stem and root to study different plant tissue.

03

3. Study of flowering plants from the families – Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Liliaceae.

14

4.

Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels.

26

5.

Study of osmosis by potato osmometer.

28

6.

To study structure and distribution of stomata in upper and lower surface of leaf.

29

7.

To test the presence of sugar, starch, proteins and fats.

31

8.

To Study the digestion of starch by salivary amylase.

35

 

(B)      Study / Observation of the following (Spotting)

 

1.

Study of specimens and their identification.

41

2.

Comparative study of rates of transpiration in upper and lower surface of leaf.

51

3.

Study of different modifications of root(Fusiform root, parasitic root, epiphytic root and pneumatophores.).

52

4.

Study of different modifications of stem ( stem tuber, runner and tendril).

56

5.

Study of different modification of leaf (leaflet and stipular tendril, leaf spines, phyllode).

59

6.

Study of imbibition of seeds/raisins.

61

7.

Study and identification of different types of inflorescence.

62

8.

To Study tissues and diversity in shapes and size of plant and animal cells.

64

9.

Observation and comments on experimental set up.

69

10.

Study of specimens and their Identification.

72

11.

Study of Human Skeleton.

89

12.

Study of External characters of Earthworm, Cockroach and Frog.

104

13.

Study of mitosis in onion root tips and animal cells.

107

PREFACE

Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution and taxonomy. It provides detailed information about the zoological as well as botanical aspects of life with intensive study of different species of plants and animals, internal structure of human body, physical and chemical functions of tissues, organs and organ systems, and many other aspects.

Practical application of biology is of utmost importance in the field of physiology, neurology, biochemistry, cardiology, zoology, pisciculture, apiculture, sericulture etc. Therefore it is necessary to have a firm grip over such an extensive subject and its practical application. Hence we bring to you “STD XI Sci. ­- BIOLOGY PRACTICAL HANDBOOK” a handbook which is a complete and thorough guide of different biology practicals.

This handbook written according to the needs and requirement of the board exam and helps the student to score high. It covers the entire syllabus with different sets of practicals written in a systematic and comprehensive manner. The diagrams included are neat, labelled and well drawn to provide an imagination of what they look like in real. The handbook also includes all the necessary information regarding the practical. It also includes a skeleton paper of examination.

And lastly, we would like to thank all those who have helped us in preparing this book. There is always room for improvement and hence we welcome all suggestions and regret any errors that may have occurred in the making of this book.

A book affects eternity; one can never tell where its influence stops.

Best of luck to all the aspirants!
Yours faithfully
Publisher

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